The European Union and its defense : the promise of a brighter tomorrow or the New Tower of Babel

During the course of the 1990’s, each member of NATO re-appropriated its military sovereignty. This movement explains to a large degree why the Europeans have been knocked off balance by the project of European defense. Up until 1990, the law was based on necessity and the defense of Europe by NATO was superior to the idea of an autonomous European military action. In one decade, two windows of opportunity have presented themselves and now allow Europeans to progress towards a communal policy on security and defense (PECSD). This rapid process will first effect the political, judicial and organizational conditions for the development of European defense. Next, it will take on a concrete dimension with a first cycle of convergence, which will culminate in 2003 with a fast acting, operational force at Europe’s disposal. – Summary AFRI-2001