The current financial crisis shakes the foundations of theoretical economic bases as applied in the past. Thus, opinions differ on solutions for a sustainable economic recovery. While some economists advocate a return to fundamental monetarism, the others encourage a return to Keynes’s doctrine. In order to understand the suggestions of master thinkers for solving the financial crisis, it is advisable to study the ideological and institutional context in which their thoughts are shaped. If B. Bernanke, D. Strauss-Kahn and J.-C. Trichet serve the institutions they lead, respectively the FED, the IMF and the ECB, A. Merkel is rather influenced by moral considerations on the debt. Solutions supported by economists such as J. Stiglitz and J. Galbraith, are closer to their political thinking.