The forecast mid-term decline of oil production leads one to ponder the globality of mineral production. As what concerns fossile fuels, their growing consumption and the use of coal – a great source of carbon dioxide – results in the rapid increase of greenhouse gas. Our societies’ needs for metals are constantly growing and the mining industry has increased its capacities with a strong rise in prices. Resources are not unlimited, and on the short term, the development of recycling and the exploitation of low-rating mines may respond to the reviving demand. For the intermediate term, the constant growth of raw materials should encourage highly demanding countries to act in order to secure their supply, thus to adopt regulatory forms beyond simple trade mechanisms.