Strategic research structures in Nordic countries: the paradoxical oversize

In Nordic countries, the large number of research institutes in the field of strategic studies reflects the strategic and political agenda of the state. Although most of these institutes have been under the influence of « peace research », a school which was created in the 1960’s in Norway by Johan Galtung, some of them, under the shape of associations or NGOs, are quite unusual. The myriad of institutes existing in such small countries may come across as a paradox. Nevertheless, the concept of total defence adopted by Nordic countries, combining military and civil elements, explains to a great extent the involvement of civil society in the national strategic thinking. – Summary AFRI-2004