The Israeli air interdiction strategy of reached its limits during the war in Lebanon in 2006, waged against Hezbollah fighters who had taken advantage of the field. The Gaza operation in 2008 proved that the Israeli leadership had learned a few lessons from the war in Lebanon. Hamas was strongly influenced by Hezbollah’s modus operandi in its preparation for the 2008 conflict. But, against IDF, the performance of Hamas fighters was very inferior to Hezbollah’s. What can one conclude ? Did IDF remember and apply lessons from the war in Lebanon ? Did Hamas have a poor analysis of what has been the strength of its Lebanese mentor ? What were the lessons learned by the different military actors of the Levantine zone since 2006, and what are the implications for the evolution of their defense systems and military doctrines ?