This evaluation remains uncertain. One likes minorities outside, but they are a cause for concern at home. Their international rights remain vague and of a declaratory nature. One must not overestimate legal solutions to their problems. Indeed, minorities have not played a negative role, as they did before World War Two, but they do raise some international security problems. How could they be identified ? They are either recognized from outside or imposing own their identity. Anyhow, they are only meaningful within their own territorial States. According to the degree of their recognition, they either benefit from specific rules or from the rule of law for all citizens. It is certain that their optimal future does not lie in recomposing the borders of European States, but in contributing to the rule of law by opening themselves to external societies, instead of secluding themselves, in a sectarian and/or ethnical move.