Does the right to peaceful uses of nuclear energy constitute a right to take the path of proliferation ? This question crosses the mind of any observer of the Iranian crisis. The right to develop nuclear energy, as writ in the NPT, is associated to the respect in good faith of the non-proliferation commitment. But in fact, as shown by the various proliferation crises in recent years, peaceful nuclear activities can be diverted for military purposes. To close this loophole of the established non-proliferation regime, solutions are to be implemented both inside and outside the NPT review process.