In the unstable energy landscape of the XXIst century, Europe is now faced with energy issues on an unprecedented scale. Thus, a prominent question for the European Union is how current developments can affect the numerous and wide energy issues of today and tomorrow. The evolution of Europe’s energy policy has become a major long-term geopolitical, economic, environmental and social concern for the Union. A comprehensive energy policy would allow the European Union to play a more effective leading international role with respect to its energy partners worldwide. However, it remains difficult to see the European Union as a vast homogeneous block of consuming and importation, since national energy sectors and policies of the Member States reflect high levels of disparity and asymmetry. Numerous factors that block the creation of a genuine common energy policy and doubts over the current capacity of the EU and its Member States to meet their challenges lead us to ask whether the Union possesses the necessary foundations to conduct such a common energy policy.