The Paris-Berlin-Moscow axis

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The Iraqi crisis in 2002-2003 is a founding crisis, after the turning point on 9/11. It has deeply modified international relations and divided the UN, NATO and EU. A « peace camp » has formed around a rather unexpected axis: Paris-Berlin-Moscow. France was its spokesman in the UN and a diplomatic trial of strength has vividly opposed it against the United States. The question is to know whether it is a tactical alliance, or a lasting strategy. The newly vigorous French-German couple means to promote the emergence of a mighty Europe first, an objective scarcely compatible with a triangular alliance that would last to the detriment of CFSP and ESDP. – Summary AFRI-2004