The Convention on the protection and promotion of cultural expressions adopted by UNESCO has become operational during 2007. At the end of this year, 77 States had signed it. Yet, even if its main intention concerns the cultural industries, it will not be easy for all of the actors concerned (States, international institutions, civil society, media and various creators), not to consider the expression of the minorities which are more and more numerous in the World, including Europe. They want to be recognized, not only about their cultural aspects, but also inside many States. The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples of 13 September 2007 will give them a new legitimate point.