China is emerging as next decades’ superpower, or at least one of them. Because of its dictatorial regime, it is perceived or described as a form of neo-colonialism or « red » imperialism. Nevertheless, it is fit to weigh on and influence economy, financial markets, and also education or technology at a global level. Since 1993, as a means to support part of its domestic growth, China has redeployed in Africa. Can this enable Africa to exit post-colonialism and benefit from it, or is China merely another colonizing country, and a plunderer potentially even stronger and more destructive than European powers ? What can the consequences of this presence may be, in terms of micro and macro-economic dynamics ? How long will Africa remain marginal ?