The three generations of international penal justice

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This article focuses on the various forms of international justice operating today in the world : ad hoc international criminal tribunals, international criminal court, joint tribunals operating (Sierra Leone) or on the verge to operate (Cambodia) settled up by an agreement between United Nations and some countries, and finally national jurisdictions exerting universal competency. These evolutions are analysed trough both political and historical perspective. In doing so, one insists on the hopes and expectations conveyed by each experience considering the point of view of justice efficiency – at the levels of penal repression as well as of return to civil peace. Progress made or retreats occurred are put in parallel with objective political factors that can ultimately foster or hinder the action and working of these jurisdictions. – Summary AFRI-2005