At the end of the Cold War, NATO has been faced with a major communication problem: justifying its existence after the collapse of the Soviet Union. To that end, it has developed a message ambivalent enough to make it essential to build a Europe of Defence. At the same time, the media are changing because of the first Gulf War. The onset of wars in Europe led NATO to adopt techniques of information warfare experienced in the Gulf, resulting from the ongoing « Revolution in Military Affairs » in the United States. NATO’s intervention during the Kosovo crisis allowed it to test information operations. With their feedback, it was able to adjust once again its communication device, making it interoperable with military requirements. Meanwhile, the media adapted to this new way of conducting operations, which affected their informational aspect. The intervention in Afghanistan is the opportunity to fine-tune even more the information operations’ concept.