The Role of the National and Regional Governments in the Multi-Level Climate Politics of Belgium

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It is often said that the global scale of climate change makes it an issue that requires action by multiple levels of governments. Indeed, the constitutional or legal responsibilities, the expertise, the policy levers necessary to tackle climate change very rarely reside in a single level of government. In federal countries especially, sub-state governments often have very important constitutional competences relevant to climate politics. Energy, environment, transport, and agriculture are domains where various levels of government usually have constitutional competences. Moreover, regional governments are routinely in charge of implementing policies to comply with targets agreed upon on the international stage. (…)